The true biological father of a child will match at all the paternal markers tested. It is the case that we are often asked to test, for example, if the presumed father’s brother (the child’s uncle) is the father of the child or that the presumed father’s own father (the child’s grandfather) is the father of the child. If you suspect this may be the case with your client, you must let us know…we will take this into account in the analysis.
If we determine an inclusion (positive result), in the report we will discuss; a) the probability that the tested man is the child’s true biological father (as opposed to being unrelated) and b) the probability that the tested man is related to the child but not as the child’s biological father. This could be as a paternal uncle, grandfather or paternal half brother, for example.
On occasion you may not know or suspect this to be the case and it may be revealed by a DNA analysis. Such a possibility arises by observing at least one or two mis-matches between the tested male and the child (we need at least three mis-matches to conclude he is not the father). Our report will consider that the tested male is; a) a close male relative of the true biological father and b) is the biological father and that there are rare DNA change(s). Indeed, the latter illustrates why the mother should participate. We can immediately identify the mothers’ contribution to the child’s profile such that the remainder must come from the father; we are then working with the child’s paternal DNA component only.